BPSC-133 Comparative Government and Politics,Unit-1 Comparative analysis-nature, scope and utility, Free notes available for exam.


SUBJECT NAMEComparative government and politics
COURSEB.A (General) political science (BAG)
TOTAL MARKS100 marks

BPSC-133 Comparative analysis – Nature, scope and utility (Notes)


  1. Introduction
  2. Comparative study of politics : Nature and scope
  3. Comparative politics: A historical overview
  4. Comparative study of politics : Utility


The primary good of comparative politics is about encompassing the major political similarities crowd the world. The emphasis is on how different societies cope with various problems by making comparisons with others.


Comparative method is used in every discipline. The three aspects of subject matter- language, vocabulary and perspective, establish the distinct nature of comparative politics. It shares the subject matters and concerns of political science: democracy, constitution, political parties, and social movements.

  1. Comparison:- Identification of relationship the distinctiveness of comparative politics lies in a conscious and systematic use of comparison to study two or more countries with the purpose of identifying and eventually explaining difference or similarities between them with respect to particular phenomena being analyzed. It is not only about this it is the study of a large framework of relationship.
  2. Comparative politics and government:- Comparative government is limited to comparative study of governments while comparative politics is the study of all forms of political activities government as well as non government. Certain aspects of its institutions and political process were specially in focus for explaining political process example political socialization, pattern of political culture techniques of interest articulation and interest aggregation, styles of political recruitment, extent of political efficiency and political apathy, roling elites etc.  With globalization the imperative for large level comparison increased and the field of comparison has diversified with inclusion of non-state non Government actors and increased connection between nation with economic linkage and its revaluation.

UNIT-1 EXPLANATION IN HINDI :- https://youtu.be/8zqRr97lB7Q


  1. The origin of comparative study of politics:- The earliest incarnation comes in the form of studies done by Aristotle, who studied the constitution of 150 states. He not only described and classified regimes and political systems in terms of their types eg- democracy, Aristotcracy, monarchy etc. But also distinguished them on the basis of certain norma of good governance.
  2. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries:- Comparative studies were taken ahead with the study of institution distribution of power, and relationship between difference layers of government. These studies were ‘euro- centric’ I,e. Confined to study of institution, government and regime types in European countries . So, it was not genuinely comparative in the sense that they excluded from their analysis a larged no. Of countries. The exclusion of the rest was due to the dominance of Europe in world politics
  3. The study world war and after :- After the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917, the identity of socialism emerged as an alternative to western capitalism. With the end of second world war significant the decline of Europen hegemony, emergency of USA, biforcation of world into two ideological i.e capitalism and socialism. A number of newly independent states planned to stay away from both and remain non-aligned. Till 1940s comparative study includes the study of institution, legal – constitutional principles regulating them, the manner of functioning. In such context, a powerful critique comes up known as behaviorism, who attempt to study social relative regarding difference in people behavior and their implication for political processes and political systems. The study shifted from descriptive to analytical and case study to genuinely comparative. It tends to develop a theory which compare political system of all kinds- primitive or advanced, democratic or non-democrative , western or non-western . It also includes the functioning of less formally structured agencies, behaviours and processess.
  4. The 1970s and challenges to developmental ism :- Towards 1970 developmentalism came to be criticised for favourite abstract models and focus on the third world. This stress the need to concentrate on solution to the backwardness of developing countries. The two main challenges to it are – (a) dependency and (b) corporatism. Dependency criticised the dominant model of development for ignoring domestic class factors, internation markets and power factors of development. It says that the development of the west comes at the cost of non-west. The corpotatist critised development for its Euro America ethnocentrism and indicate that there alternative organic, often authorisation way to organize the state society relations.
  5. The 1980s : the return of the state :- During this time a number of theories emerge into comparative politics included bureaucratic – authoritarianism , indigenas concept of change, transition of democracy, the politics of structure adjustment neoliberalism and privatization. While some scholars saw this as breaking the Unity field others saw healthy diversity providing alternative approaches and covering new subject areas.
  6. The late nineteenth century globalisation and emergency tends :- Globalization refers to a set of condition, scientific, technological, economic and political, which have link the world so that occurrence in one part are bond to affect by what is happening in other part. With development focus grow to interest of Western capitalism there was also and unprecendented development in the field of information and communication technology namely the internet and www. It made production, collection and Analysis of data easily and faster.


utility of its concerned with the relevance for enhancing our understanding of political reality.

  1. Comparing for theoretical formulation:- It seeks to make comparison consciously to arrive at conclusions which can be held true for a num of cases. So, the stress is on theory- building and testing.
  2. Comparison for scientific rigours:- Comparative methods scientific rigours and basis to theories. It offer unique opportunity of ‘control’ in the study
  3. Comparison leading to explanations in relationship:- Early comparison study merley look for similarities and differences and directed this towards classifying, dichotomising or polarising political phenomenon. But then it came to focus the larger framework. The most significant purpose is not to be just skeptical of others but you question our own system and beliefs in the lights of new evidence and arguments.


  1. Elaborate on the development of comparative politics in the twentieth century.
  2. Describe the differences between the comparative politics and comparative government.

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