BPSC-133 Unit- 12 State in the era of Globalisation, Notes available for IGNOU.

BPSC-133 COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS OVERVIEW

TITLENotes
SUBJECT NAMEComparative government and politics
SUBJECT CODEBPSC-133
COURSEB.A (General) political science (BAG)
LANGUAGE MEDIUMEnglish, Hindi
TOTAL MARKS100 marks
DURATION OF PAPER3 hours
UNIVERSITY IGNOU

BPSC-133 UNIT-12 STATE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALISATION (NOTES)

TOPICS :-

  1. Introduction
  2. What is Globalisation
  3. Approaches to Globalisation
  4. Impact on state Sovereignty
  5. Impact of Globalisation on internal functioning of states

12.2 WHAT  IS GLOBALISATION :-

It refers to economic, political and cultural processes through which world is becoming interconnected and interdependent leading to single world system. The mains actors of it are the nation-state, individual, MNCs, international organizations, mass-media, etc.

12.3 APPROACHES TO GLOBALISATION :-

There are 3 approaches to include;-

  1. A new approach of history in which traditional, nation-states have become “unnatural, even impossible business units in a global economy”. In this the intermediate institutions gets sandwiched between powerful local, regional and global mechanisms of governance. Now, power is diffused and core- periphery thing is disappearing.
  2. Sceplics called it as a myth. They argue that what is being described is actually high levels of interstate trade and expansion of economic markets. They believe that it is not market that rules, but the state that regulates all economic activity. Thus, politics and not economics alone are important in determining relations among states.
  3. The transformationists believe that with globalization, there is no clear distinction, external and internal affairs. Though political, military, technological and cultural flows takes place, it does not mean arrival of global society, rather it is new patterns of stratification in which some states are becoming strong while other weak or marginalized.

12.4 IMPACT ON STATE SOVEREIGNTY ;-

By the end of 20th century, nation-state face a decline, even when they remain as the significant actor and retains autonomy, but it is uneven. Some states have declined while others have risen.

  1. Challenge from the new world economy ;- Two major changes in economic international processes, which have impacted on state sovereignty, have been internationalization of production and financial transactions organized by MNCs. Technological advances in communication and transport are eroding the boundaries between national policies . Markets and societies are becoming sensitive to each other and monetary and fiscal policies are dominated by movements in international markets. As a result, internal policymaking, investment, employment and revenue within a state is often affected by activities of MNCs. State economics no longer are managed by state but are subject to external forces, such as recession, inflation and trades, such as recession inflation and trade agreements. However, some states are able to manage themselves and take the benefits of it, for eg, USA, or EU.
  2. Challenge from new international organizations :– Over the past century, the numbers of NGOs has risen and also the inter- governmental organization. It brings new forms of decision making involving a number of states and whole array of international pressure groups. Some of them such as world bank, IMF, UNESCO, UN has intervene in the internal affairs of states. Therefore, a tension exist between the nation of a sovereign nation-state in control of its internal affairs.
  3. Challenge form international laws :– Changes I international law introduce new forms of regulation, rights and duties that act as constraints. One important charless on human rights was that, individual can initiate proceedings against their own government. This was accepted  by EU. In this regard an important initiative was taken by UN in 2005, calling it ‘Responsibility to protect, which says that the UN has right to intervene in domestic affairs of particular state if state fail to protct its citizens from human right violation. The existence of NATO can constrain the decision- making power of many states.

12.5 IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON INTERNAL FUNCTIONING OF STATES :-

1. Democratic Decision-making :- With globalization, active intervention by agencies such as world bank and IMF  led to structured adjustment programmes and development projects, trade sancaion, aid , military imparts etc, had grave implication for democratic decision-making. Consequently, states no longer control their own decision and actions as in the past.

2. Ethnic Resurgence :- The relationship between ethnicity and nationalism have undergone a change. Three kinds of assertions taking place are –

(a) those based on the belief that cultural identity and economic prosperity can be maintained or achieved by breaking away form the existing state. Eg- former USSR.

(b) those asserting that nationalist aspiration cannot be achieved without full independent statehood. Eg- Yugoslavia.

(c) a more widespread phenomenon in which the state does not adequately look after the interests o distinct ethnic group which has remained backward and marginalized. Eg- Dalits in India .

Today, therefore, while globalization is the first major force globalization is the first major force posing a fundamental challenge to the state, the resurgence of ethnic identities is second, and they often exert contrary pulls. The nation-state thus experience a two fold pressure.

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