BPSC-133 , Unit-3 Authoritarian and Democratic regimes, Notes available for free IGNOU.

BPSC-133 OVERVIEW :-

TITLENotes
SUBJECT NAMEComparative government and politics
SUBJECT CODEBPSC-133
COURSEB.A (General) political science (BAG)
LANGUAGE MEDIUMEnglish, Hindi
TOTAL MARKS100 marks
DURATION OF PAPER3 hours
UNIVERSITY IGNOU

BPSC-133 UNIT-3 AUTHORITARIAN AND DEMOCRATIC REGIMES (NOTES)

TOPICS :-

  1. Introduction
  2. Government political system and political regime
  3. The purpose of classification of political regime
  4. Evolution of democratic regimes
  5. Democratic regimes in the developed states
  6. Democratic regimes and the developing states
  7. The nature of authoritarian regimes

3.1 INTRODUCTION

In the attempts of describing political regime, the terns, ‘democracy, oligarchy and tyranny’ comes up that is used by theorist to describe modern political regimes.

3.2 GOVERNMENT POLITICAL SYSTEM AND POLITICAL REGIME :-

Government refers to the institutional process through which collective and usually binding decisions are made and implemented. Its core functions are law making (legislation), law implementation (execution) and law interpretation (adjudication), performed by legislature, executive and judiciary.

A political regime or political system is broader as it also includes the structure, processes and values which they interact with the civil society, apart from the organs of government and institutions.

3.3 THE PURPOSE OF CLASSIFICATION OF POLITICAL REGIMES :-

It serves three purpose:-

  1. It is an enabling exercise as far as the understanding of politics and government is concerned and involve issues related to them.
  2. The process of classification facilities a meaningful evaluation of particular political regime which leads to a better governance.
  3. The process helps in taking the questions at the concrete level like the transition liberal democratic regime in the former communist countries from people’s democratic regime be welcomed ?

3.4 EVOLUTION OF DEMOCRATIC REGIMES :-

Earlier the term democracy means ‘rule by the people’. It usage was distinguished as, rule by one (monarchy), the few (aristocracy or oligarchy) and the many (democracy). During the 5th BC, only small minority of adult population of Athens were able to participate in the political process. In 20th century, universal suffrage and other citizenship rights. The assertion of national independence got reformulated as democratic regimes came to be identified with the right of collective self-determination. One can refer to the people democratic regimes of the second and third world which asserted their democratic legitimacy.

UNIT-3 EXPLAIN IN HINDI :- https://youtu.be/W-KQWkmZVaU?si=QHf9j4oo78Wh6oTh

3.5 DEMOCRATIC REGIMES IN THE DEVELOPED STATES :-

The characteristics includes :-

  1. It represents political institutions and practices which include universal suffrage. Elections of representatives makes them directly responsible to people.
  2. Free and fair elections are the basis of formation of governments. It is also supplement by pressure groups and lobbying organisation.
  3. It reflect a high level of tolerance of opposition. The existence of Alternative sources of information is helpful in this regard.
  4. It accept the presence of political cleavage due to diversity in civil society.
  5. Modern democratic regimes are distinguished by the existence, legality and legitimacy of variety of autonomous organization.
  6. Besides guaranteeing individual rights, they also support free competitive market society.
  7. The democratic regimes in the developed world tend to favour centralisation and majority rule where as others favours fragmentation and pluralism.

The majoriyones are organised along parliamentary lines. While, pluralist are based on us model that represent the separation of power and checks and balance.

3.6 DEMOCRATIC REGIMES AND THE DEVELOPING STATES :-

While some regimes maintain the democratic form, they are authoritarian in actual working. A major obstacles to the success of democratic regimes in the developing states has been the deep ethnic division along the linguistic tribal and religious lines. The increased level political participation by wider groups with increased expectations find its necessary to implement authoritarian measures.

Another major problem was that of underdevelopment. Thus, the democratic regimes are oriented more around around economic goals then the political ones.

3.7 THE NATURE OF AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES :-

Authoritarian regimes decided what is good for individual and impose their values on society irrespective of members ‘ wishes. It insisted on unqualified obedience, conformity and coercion. Authoritative means power raised in a moral or ethical level, while, authoritariansm means authority regardless of consent and with the help of force.

  1. Characteristics of Authoritarian regimes :-
  1. It exercise sufficient power to dispense with any constitutional limitation.
  2. They claim to derive their authority always from the consent of the governed but from some special quality that they claim to possess.
  3. The are likely to use violence, changes of leaders is not smooth and peaceful.
  4. It aslo emplay force in their relations with other countries. It do not help the cause of international peace.
  5. It is characterized by law and limited political mobilisation.
  6. It represent limited pluralism, implemented less effectively or confined to strictly political groups or extended to interest groups.
  7. In this, political power is not legally accountable through such groups to the citizens, even when, it might be quite responsive to them. It is contrast to democratic regimes.

2. Authoritarian regimes in the past-second world war period :-

Authoritarian regimes have been mostly established in the developing states. These regimes more than political, economic, cultural or ideological factors- have been dependent on use of military power. These have been mostly under the control of military janta. In such cases a single individual acquires pre-eminence within the junta, often being bolstered by a cult of personality drawing a characteristic authority.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS IN THIS UNIT 3 :-

  1. Explain the characteristic of Authoritarian regimes.

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