BPSC-133 Unit- 8 Pressure Groups , Notes available for IGNOU

BPSC-133 OVERVIEW :-

TITLENotes
SUBJECT NAMEComparative government and politics
SUBJECT CODEBPSC-133
COURSEB.A (General) political science (BAG)
LANGUAGE MEDIUMEnglish, Hindi
TOTAL MARKS100 marks
DURATION OF PAPER3 hours
UNIVERSITY IGNOU

BPSC-133 UNIT-8 PRESSURE GROUPS (NOTES)

TOPICS :-

  1. Introduction
  2. Defining pressure groups
  3. Origin of pressure groups
  4. Pressure groups and other social groups
  5. Characteristics of pressure groups
  6. Classification of pressure groups
  7. Methods and tactics of pressure groups
  8. Pressure groups in modern political system

8.1 INTRODUCTION :-

With the social changes like industrialization, urbanization, modern education, spread of public communication diversity in life conditions which in turn results to formation of large numbers of interest groups.

8.2 DEFINING PRESSURE GROUPS :-

  1. Organised groups possessing both formal structure and real common interests as they influence the decisions of public bodies.
  2. Organisations trying to influence the policy of public bodies in their own chosen direction though not undertaking direct government.
  3. An association of individuals by a common interest, belief , activity or purpose that seeks to achieved its objectives and enhance its status in relation to other groups, by gaining approval and co-operation of authority in form of favourable policies, legislation and conditions.
  4. Organizations which seeks to influence government policy without at the same time being willing to accept the responsibilities of public office.

UNIT – 8 EXPLANATION VIDEO :- https://youtu.be/eLOBgf0DDhU?si=4-DKazabWS4l5sRV

8.3 ORIGIN OF PRESSURE GROUPS :-

The behavior of human as social animal incentivizes to the formation of social groups in every sphere of life. People belonging to different sections to the society, be it religion, caste ethnicity, profession, tradeu union, farmers gets organizes in order to advanced their interests. In the late 18th century, it gained more prominence. Despite of their prominence in democratic politics, it was hardly given any attention. However, in the mid-20th century, the study of group politics became more specific.

8.4 PRESSURE GROUPS AND OTHER SOCIAL GROUPS

  1. Pressure Groups and Interest Groups :-  Interest groups are the closest to it. These are social aggregates with some level of chosen and shared aims which attempt to influenced political decision- making process. They merely insist on promoting their interests rather than putting pressure on the government. All pressure groups are interests groups but not all interest groups necessarily transform into pressure groups.
  2. Pressure Groups and Political parties :– Political parties aim to get into power and form the government while pressure groups generally while pressure groups generally seek to influence and pressurize the government . Political party have broad programmes covering all policy areas while pressure groups focus on only one. Some pressure groups are also found to have close relationship with one political party or another. Infact, the support certain parties whenever they think their purpose can be served.
  3. Pressure Groups and Civil Society Organization :– CSOs, are organization set up by the citizens of a country to persue certain interests. Eg – In India, civil society groups like Lok Satta , Jannagraga and FDR, are persuading parties to create avenues for legitimate funding with transparency. Pressure groups are more power- centric than CSOs which are interests oriented, but the domains of pressure groups are more restricted to CSOs whose area is vast.

8.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESSURE GROUPS :-

  1. They neither contest elections nor attempt to directly be involved in governmental affairs. They only aim to pressurize.
  2. They try to maintain a neutral political positions by concentrating on their specific demands.
  3. They also try to maintain good relationship with political parties, politicians or high-ranking , executive in order to win their co-operations.
  4. They have no permanent political affiliations and try to keep their group interest of working is quite restricted.
  5. There is flexinility of demands and objectives in them.
  6. They emphasized on the collective approach rather than individualistic.

8.6 CLASSIFICATION OF PRESSURE GROUPS :-

  1. Institutional pressure groups :- Those groups which are formed in institutions, like school, colleges, universities, judiciary, hospitals, police etc. They are highly organized with proper rules and relations. Since they are close to government they can easily influence the government.
  2. Associational pressure groups :– These are highly organized and specialized groups formed to presue limited goals. It includes businessmen and industrialists like CII, FICCI, etc. These by virtue of their vast array of resources, technical and managerial knowledge and their close links with elite groups in the government are the most influential one. Some of these are so powerful that even political parties are dependent on them for funds and other resources and in turn, they get consessions in reduction of tax, tariff, trade etc.
  3. Non- Associational pressure groups :- They are informal in nature brought together by religion, culuture, traditions, kinship ethnicity, trbal affiliations or family ties etc. They do not have permanent demands and it keep changing. They serve to protect and promote the interest of whole community.
  4. Anomic Pressure Groups :– They appear for a short span of time for specific purpose. They are formed for unpredictable moments like, famine, drought, scarcity of resources, etc. they are not guided by any rule so their behavior is quite unpredictable which often turns violent.

8.7 METHODS AND TACTICS OF PRESSURE GROUPS :-

  1. Lobbying :- Any attempt or efforts made by individual members or groups in lobbies or halls of parliament building to garner support. It can be if multiple ways such as direct personal contacts, sending delegations or representatives, writing letters, telephone calls, email conversation etc. It also sometimes include favours inducements and offerings.
  2. Shaping public opinion :– It is geared to attract media attention and to sensitize the public at large and gian wider influence. It uses platforms like social media, mass media, issuing press release, distributing pamphlels, organizing public meetings etc.
  3. Publicity and propaganda :– They usually propagate their interest through mass media like newspaper, radio, television, interest etc. They highlight their demands and educate the government and public at larger on matters crucial for their collective interests. They influence those in authority.
  4. Strikes and Agitation :– Usually they use peaceful  ways but sometimes go for strikes, protests, demonstration, civil disobedience for getting maximum benefits of their demands. They attempt for a temporary stoppage of work. Bandh and gherao are other forms of direct-action methods. In India. Nost pressure groups rely more on direct action methods and les on techniques like lobbying.

8.8 PRESSURE GROUPS IN MODERN POLITICAL SYSTEM :-

  1. Its positive view is that it enable individual to associate with one another and voice their interests for eg, women, minorities, LGBTQ, suggest ideas, encourage wider participation act as alink etween people and government and counter the monopoly of political parties.
  2. Its negative view is that some –times, politics gets dominated by small number of people, few capitalist class always tends to control. Majority of the weaker section are largely unorganized, therefore, is unlikely to emerge as a leaders of pressure groups. Their method are often corrupt.

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